Be grapeful

General description

The grape is one of the critical temperate fruits that is also an important and economic project for the farmers among the horticultural crops grown worldwide. It is one of the oldest plants known to man and grows virtually in every country. Different varieties of the Vitis, known as the European grape or the grape of the old world, are the most widely grown grapefruit in Iraq. Over one hundred cultivars of grapes are grown in Iraq, including dessert grapes, varieties that are used as a table grape or may be dried to give currants, raisins, and varieties that can be used to produce juice and wine. In the Vitaceae family, the Vitis genus is of primary agronomic importance. It consists of about sixty inter-fertile species that exist almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere, distributed equally between America and Asia.

The top grapes producing country is China followed by Italy and Spain based on the statistics reported on 2020. This genus of around sixty-five deciduous, tendril-climbing shrubs and vines has immense commercial significance as the source of grapes. However, only a few species yield fruits suitable for wine or the table, and almost all wine grapes are derived from Vitis vinifera.


Grapes can thrive well in a wide range of climatic conditions and are grown successfully in temperate and tropical parts of the world at an elevation of one thousand two hundred to three thousand and two hundred feet above sea level.

The foliage is standard though much of the genus is roughly heart-shaped with three to seven lobes, and the leaves often color well in the autumn. It grows in humus-rich, moisture-retentive, but well-drained soil in full sun or part shade. Fully to marginally frost hardy, they need cool winters and low summer humidity, or mildew will be a significant problem. Train on a sturdy pergola or fence where it is sunny and deep soil so the vine can dig its roots down. Besides, pruning depends on the grape type and how the vine is grown. For pergola vines, train on a single trunk until it reaches the horizontal beams, then allow it to spread out. Birds are a nuisance, so cover the vines with bird netting or put paper bags around the grape clusters. Cut the grapes with sharp scissors when fully ripe. Vines need annual pruning in mid-winter to control their growth and encourage heavy fruiting. They are traditionally propagated from cuttings in late winter.

Breeding woody perennial fruit plants, such as grapevines, presents considerable difficulties. Although cultivated grapes bear self-fertile flowers, they do not breed true from seed. The perfectly formed grape has four seeds, but the actual number is usually smaller because environmental and nutritional conditions at the flowering time limit the success of fertilization, hence the number of seeds per berry. Grape is classified as actual berries because the fruit wall or pericarp is fleshy. Two successive sigmoidal growth periods are separated by a lag phase in grape berry development: berry formation and berry ripening. Berry formation stands for sixty days after flowering, the berry is formed, and the seed embryos are produced. The size of the berry expanded due to rapid cell division in the first few weeks. The berries then become softer, changing color, and doubling their size in the sigmoidal growth phase.

There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, and essentially all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, and Black Monukka, all of which are cultivars of Vitis vinifera. In addition, cultivars such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels’s Prime seedless grapes, Reliance, and Venus are specifically cultivated for hardiness and quality in the relatively cold climates of the North-eastern United States and Southern Ontario.

Rootstock cultivars currently used in viticulture worldwide were obtained from conventional breeding, and this traditional approach is still practiced in several countries. The advantage of the transgenic approach for grapevine improvement lies in the potential to improve rootstocks that are particularly adapted to some types of soil and climate. True muscat cultivars include Muscat d’Alexandrie, Morio Muscat, and Muscat blanc, whereas aroma-related cultivars include Weisser Riesling, Buketteraube, Gewürztraminer, Ferńao Pires, and Scheurebe.


Vitis ‘Brandt’

Especially popular in the United Kingdom, this vigorous plant reaches twenty feet or more. Its bright green leaves turn coppery in fall. The abundant fruit is edible.

Vitis california

This species from the Western United States of America climbs as much as thirty feet high or wide. The young growth has a covering of fine grey down. The mature leaves are three-lobed about four inches across, turning crimson in the fall. The fruit is tiny and purple with a whitish bloom. ‘Roger’s Red’ is grown for its rich red fall foliage. The small leaves are dull green above and grey beneath, distinctly toothed and of variable size. A vigorous cultivar, it will attain heights of fifteen to twenty feet in full sun.

Vitis coignetiae

It is a crimson glory vine that is a rapid-growing climber from Japan and Korea that reaches fifty feet in height, with green, slightly lobed leaves which turn deep crimson, orange, and scarlet in the autumn. Clusters of small black berries with a glaucous bloom are borne in the late summer. Its tendrils coil around supports and need plenty of room to spread. The leaf color is the best in cool climates like fully frost hardy.

Vitis labrusca

It is commonly referred to as fox grape. The parent of most of the non-Vitis vinifera grapes cultivated in the United States of America, this native of the Eastern seaboard produces long and felt young shoots that require trellising for support. The large and shallowly three-lobed leaves are deep green above and felty white beneath. Full sun and well-drained and fertile soil are ideal for producing the large and purple-black fruit, which have a musky or ‘foxy’ flavor. ‘Concord’, ‘Catawba’ and ‘Niagara’ are commonly grown cultivars in areas where the winters are cold and when summers are cool and short.

Vitis vinifera

This species is commonly known as grape. It is native to Europe and the Mediterranean and has been cultivated since antiquity. A vigorous, fully frosty-hard vine, it has given rise to many varieties with either black or white (pale green or yellow) fruit, some being better for wine, others for eating fresh or dried. It is best grown where summers are dry.

Furthermore, ‘Albany Surprise’ is a sweet while table grape; ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ is a black wine grape that produces many of the best quality red wines; ‘Chardonnay’ is a white wine grape that has become very popular in recent years; ‘Ganzin Glory’ is widely grown for its brilliant crimson fall foliage, which colors reliably, even in mild-winter areas; ‘Merlot’ is a black wine grape often blended with ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’; ‘Muller Thurgau’ is a white grape often used for bulk production wines; ‘Pinot Noir’ is a black grape used in red wine manufacture and in the production of champagne, in which it is fermented without its skin to prevent the wine reddening with some skin contact is allowed for pink champagne; ‘Purpurea’ has spectacular bright crimson foliage in fall; ‘Riesling’ and its derivatives, is a white grape responsible for a range of wines depending on its degree of ripeness and is one of the main grapes of German vineyards; ‘Schiava Grossa’, which synonym to as ‘Black Hamburgh’ is a black table grape wine grapes widely grown in Australia. Other cultivars include ‘Festivee’ and ‘Perlette’. Wine grape cultivars are often grafted onto Vitus labrusca rootstock, resistant to the Phylloxera root aphid.

Pest, disease, and postharvest

The colonization of the pathogens usually takes place in the field after the color-turning stage of the grapes. Storing the grapes in humid and warmer climates is challenging, especially in tropical countries, because of fungi, which cause various postharvest diseases like grey mold rot, blue rot, anthracnose, soft rot, botrytis rot, and Fusarium rot. In addition, the high carbohydrate and moisture content in the fruit makes the fruit ripens and deteriorates quickly. Out of so many fungi, Botrytis cinerea is the primary fungus worldwide in late-harvested table grapes that have been exposed in the field to high humidity, dew, and rainfall.

Control of these diseases is usually achieved by hot water treatment, heat treatment, chemical fungicide, and biological and plant products like essential oils, plant extracts, salicylic acid, and chitosan. Traditionally, synthetic fungicides are used to control postharvest fungal pathogens. However, nowadays, a controlled atmosphere and modified storage atmosphere in a postharvest storage room are also being optimized to keep the freshness of the fruits after harvest.

Raisins, decayed grapes, and wine are generally contaminated. However, it is not dangerous for the consumer as the contaminants are found in low concentrations according to the food safety act. Nowadays, various postharvest technologies have been involved to ensure the quality of the fruits and downstream products while minimizing contamination.

Nutritional facts

A grape is a complete diet with 75 cal/100 g of fruit. Grapes possess about eighty percent of water, seventy-five percent of grape polyphenols in the skin and the seeds, low levels of sodium and dietary fiber, and are rich in vitamin B, C (ascorbic acid), and K. They also contain protein, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and minerals. Grape is one of the most popular fruits and contains many phytochemicals such as phenolic acid, anthocyanin, cyanidin, ellagic acid, tannins, and proanthocyanidins which offer health benefits.

These active compounds help minimize the risk of heart attack as they increase the level of nitric acid in the blood, preventing blood clots. Furthermore, they also contain a high concentration of caffeic acid, a strong cancer-fighting substance. In addition, grapes have antioxidant properties and other beneficial effects of grape and grape-derived products, which are anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, blood pressure regulator, antineoplastic, antiaging, anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective.

The peel of the grape ranges from yellow, green, and red to purplish and black. The anthocyanin present is responsible for different colors of grapefruit, such as black, red, and purple. Grapes contain various anthocyanins, red in low pH and yellow in high pH buffers. The stability of the anthocyanin found on the peels of the grapes is often influenced by several factors like heat, light, presence or absence of oxygen, metals, and other chemicals. Most abundant species are used to make juice, jelly, fermented to wine, brandy, and dried into raisins.

Downstream products

When the grapes mature, the acid content decreases while the sugar concentration increases. Grape berries are eaten fresh as table grapes or dried form as in raisins, but the primary use is winemaking. About eighty percent of the total crop is used in winemaking, thirteen percent is sold as table grapes, and the balance is mainly grown for raisins, juice, and other products. The quality of grape harvest depends on its maturation degree, which highlights its romantic potential. Grape seed is available as a dietary supplement in capsules, tablets, and liquid extracts as high concentrations of grape polyphenols are found in the seeds.

Grape berries have many other uses, such as canned fruit after pasteurization. In addition, the fresh juice of pressed grapes can be bottled for consumption, converted to jellied products, or concentrated, such as the ‘pecmez’ of Turkey. Moreover, there are many industrial and miscellaneous uses of grapes and grape products, including the production of ethanol, wine vinegar, grapeseed oil, anthocyanin pigment, food additives, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Additionally, winemaking residues can be processed for the industrial production of tartaric acid, and the waste can be further utilized for fertilizer production.

Grape juice

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar. The grape juice that has been pasteurized, removing any naturally occurring yeast, will not ferment if kept sterile and thus contains no alcohol.

Dried grapes – Raisins (Kismis)

Dried fruits have had a high economic value since ancient times. Traditionally, those fruits are sun-dried on the concrete ground after pretreatment. For instance, grapes are treated with dipotassium carbonate. In recent years, sun drying has been used on grapes by hanging wires to involve single and double rank, hammock, or shelf systems. As a result, the systems significantly reduced the risk of soil contamination. In addition, the pretreatment of grapes had further improved by testing various concentrations of alkaline storage conditions. Nowadays, solar drying is applied in grapes drying that can reach the maximum air temperature at fifty degrees Celsius.

The final desired moisture content is about 16 to 18 g/100 g. for bleached raisins. The maximum level of sulphur dioxide is limited to 1500 mg/kg. Many other raisins are produced to be directly consumed as sweet grapes and confectionery ingredients. Some raisins are used to make dessert wines, such as Pedro Ximenez, and are, therefore, genuine winemaking grapes. Furthermore, raisins can contain different groups of essential aroma compounds, which explains the high diversity of aroma nuances observed between different types of raisins and support the general complexity of raisin aroma. Leaving aside key terpenic odorants, such as linalool, geraniol, and rose oxide, which come directly from the fresh grape in the frequent case where the raisins are made of aromatic grapes (Muscat and derivatives, Traminer and derivatives, Pedro Ximenez). Besides, raisins have groups of odorants produced or accumulated throughout the last stages of grape maturation, raising process, and even during the storage of raisins.

There are six types of raisins, which are black, red, green, zante currants, sultanas, and munakka. Black raisins are the most common type of raisins used in households. It is chewy and fleshy to eat that ranges from 1.5 centimeters to 2.5 centimeters. Its color gets darkened when it becomes drier. Black currants are one of the kismis that are not too sweet and have a tart-like touch. It is smaller than black raisins and is seedless and dark in color.

Moreover, sultanas raisins are seedless grapes, which are lighter in color and small in size compared to raisins. Red raisins are the most delicious types of raisins that come from red grapes. They are large in size, plumpy, and dark in color. Green raisins are thin, but long in size and are usually dark green. They are juicy, tender, and filled with fiber nutrients. Furthermore, munakka are bigger than raisins as they have seeds inside the fruits. Munakkas are pulpier than raisins and are brown in color.

Generally, raisins have several health benefits such as preventing hair loss, purifying and cleansing the intestine, improving skin health, soothing a sore throat, boosting immunity, lowering blood pressure, decreasing inflammation, aiding in digestion, and being good for the heart and dental health, improve eyesight, and prevent anemia.

Wine production

Grape processing is made by innovative mechanical and optical methods to obtain the mixture of must and skins and to separate the stems. A must (young wine) is a Latin word for freshly crushed fruit juice containing the fruit’s skins, seeds, and stems. This stage involves destemming and separating the stems, grading the grapes by eliminating the vegetal and mineral impurities, and crushing the grapes. Moreover, there are several advantages: reducing production capacity volume and the volume of crushed grapes for pressing and decreasing herbaceous character. Furthermore, destemming and stem separation help increase alcohol degree and acidity in the presence of the high potassium concentration in the stems. The approaches also decrease the content of tough tannins.

Grape harvesting can be done manually and mechanically, depending on the phytosanitary grape status and the technological destination of the harvested grapes. Subsequently, cooling grapes are needed to ensure a lower temperature using snow or carbon ice. The harvested grapes are then transported in refrigerated tanks fitted with optimal cooling systems or transported to the cellar. After that, grapes reception by using improved quantitative reception systems that automatically record the grapes quantities and allow the rapid and homogeneous sampling for qualitative reception are used.

The quality of the grape harvest depends on its degree of maturation which highlights its aromatic potential. This aromatic potential divides white grape varieties into two groups: varieties rich in volatile monoterpenes and their precursors accompanied by norizoprenoid (present in Muscat, Chardonnay, Rhein Riesling, Pinot Gris, Gewürztraminer and so on), and varieties rich in volatile thiols and their precursors. Terpene compounds may also contribute to the aromas of other non-muscat cultivars. Nearly fifty terpene compounds in grapes and wine are known at this stage, of which forty-six were identified in grapes and thirty in wines. They include only monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grapes. The top wine-producing country is Italy, followed by Spain and France based on the statistics reported in 2021. Grapes have the highest value among fruit crops produced in the United States, and the sixth highest value among the United States crops overall. The mythology of wine and its mystical significance has given the grapevine a privileged position among cultivated plants, and the growing of grapes has a prominent place in the history of western civilization. Generally, a grape has three major types of tissue: flesh, skin, and seed. The flesh is the most crucial tissue from a winemaking perspective. These tissues differ considerably in composition and contribute differently to overall wine composition.

Grapes contain two principal acids, malic and tartaric, with minor quantities of other acids. During fermentation, the levels of all these acids may change through metabolic processes, and different acids will be produced in small amounts. Wine quality is determined by a complex balance of all the secondary metabolites of grapes and wine aroma components as perceived by sensory evaluation. Then, wine flavor is classified according to the sources of the different compounds contributing to it. This includes varietal flavor (flavor compounds originating from the grapes), pre-fermentative flavor (compounds formed during operations of extraction of must), fermentative flavor (produced by yeast and bacteria during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation), and post-fermentative flavor (compounds that appear during the aging process through enzymatic or physicochemical actions in wood or the bottle). Up to twenty-seven relevant wine odorants have a specific origin in grape molecules or specific aroma precursors. A much larger aromatic diversity is observed between grape odorants, introducing or contributing to different wine odor nuances such as fruity, jammy, floral, citrus, phenolic, spicy, empyreumatic, or green, and hence contributing decisively to wine quality.

These aromatic potential divides white grape varieties into two main groups such as varieties rich in volatile monoterpenes and their precursors accompanied by norizoprenoids (Muscat, Chardonnay, Rhein Riesling, Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer and so on) and varieties rich in volatile thiols and their precursors accompanied by methoxypyrazines (Sauvignon blanc, Semillon and so on). Among Vitis vinifera grape varieties, only those of the Muscat group have distinctive aroma and flavor. Chardonnay and Pinot blanc are classified as high fructose varieties, while Chenin blanc and Zinfandel are regarded as high glucose varieties.

The volatile compounds engender wine aroma comprise primary and secondary metabolites derived from grape, yeast, malolactic bacteria and woof (usually oak) and modified by ageing; more than six hundred and eighty compounds have been identified. Non-volatile compounds, which principally arise from the grape and yeast and can be modified by wine microorganisms and ageing, contribute to wine appearance, flavor, and mouthfeel. The most important aroma compounds are linalool and geraniol, although those grapes also contain essential levels of citral, citronellol, nerol, and α-terpineol.

Additionally, grape-derived wine aroma molecules accumulate in different winemaking period. Some are primarily released during fermentation, whereas others accumulate only after extended ageing. Within the first, remaining precursors in wine can have a crucial effect on keeping levels of odorants during aging, and, therefore, in wine shelf-life. Within the latter, some of the odorants accumulating during aging, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalee (TDN), or (E)-1-(2,3,6-trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene (TPB), may have controversial effects on wine quality, and may therefore have also a significant influence on wine longevity.

The color and general style of the wine can be determined by the type of grape used and the amount of skin contact while the juice is extracted. However, the color has no relation to the sweetness of the wine, and all may be made sweet or dry. There are several types of wines: red wine, rosé wine, white wine, orange (amber wine), sparkling (effervescent wine), and dessert wine.

White grapes

White wine is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-colored pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any color. The color of white wine can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold. In the making of white wine, the skins of the grapes are removed, and the remaining non-colored pulp of grapes is left to be fermented.

Chardonnay is among the most popular white grape varieties worldwide, with wide recognition among consumers. Chardonnay can show markedly different characteristics depending on the climate. Chardonnay planted in warmer climates will generally have ripe, tropical fruit flavors and produce wines with high alcohol and considerable body. Grapes grown in cooler climates tend to have citrus flavors and green fruit aromas and produce wines with crisp acidity and a light to medium body. Chardonnay is rarely made into a delightful wine, although it is not unusual for winemakers to leave a minimally detectable amount of residual sugar in the wine to round out the body and keep the alcohol level down, particularly in the New World. Chardonnay is one of the few white grape varieties that benefit from interaction with wood. It is often aged in new oak barrels to allow it to take on flavors from the oak, especially in New World versions. However, there are also many examples of “unoaked” Chardonnays that are aged in used barrels (which impart little, if any, oak flavor) or in stainless steel tanks. One notable trait of Chardonnay is its ability to improve with age. Barrel-aged Chardonnays, in particular, will improve with time in the bottle, and many topflight white Burgundies can continue to evolve toward a more complex and flavorful wine for a decade or more.

Chenin Blanc is among the most versatile of all grape varieties. It can produce world-class wines at all sweetness levels, from dry to very sweet, in either still or sparkling versions. Chenin Blanc is known for its high acidity, significantly when grown in cool-climate vineyards, making it ideal as a base for sparkling wines. In still wines, a little residual sugar is often used to take the edge off the sharp acidity; taken to its extreme, this results in superb late-harvest dessert wines, sometimes with the added influence of botrytis. These sweet Chenin Blancs can last for decades.

Muscat is an ancient grape variety carried to nearly every wine region. It is used primarily to produce sweet wines. Muscat’s ability to produce a range of sweet wines has made it very popular with consumers in recent years, propelling the grape to double-digit growth in the US market. Muscat can also produce excellent dry wines, although these are less well-known than the sweet versions. Pinot Grigio and Pinot Gris are two well-known names for the same grape variety, which developed as a mutation of Pinot Noir in the Burgundy area of France. Both mean “gray Pinot,” about the grape’s dusky or lightly pink-colored skin. The Pinot Gris of France became the Pinot Grigio of Italy when it was planted in Italy centuries ago.

Riesling is indigenous to Germany, and because of its ability to withstand cold weather, it is one of the few quality grapes grown there and in other regions with similarly marginal climates. Riesling’s intense floral aroma profile varies a bit with the climate and growing conditions and easily reflects variations in terroir. Nevertheless, its highly aromatic style and unique “petrol” scent make it an easy variety to recognize in just about any guise. Like Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc is native to France and achieved its reputation in the Loire Valley and Bordeaux. However, it was taken to most overseas wine regions from France and prospered in many of them, especially in the cooler zones. As a result, Sauvignon Blanc is a true barometer of soil, site, and viticultural practices and can produce many different styles of wine, depending on where it is grown and how it is handled in the winery.

Red grapes

Red color present in the red wine is obtained from the dark-colored grape skin by allowing the grapes to soak in the extracted juice. The intensity of the color ranges from intense violet, typical of young wines, to brick red for mature wines and brown for older wines.

In red grapes, maximum varietal volatile compounds content is reached at maturity as established by the sugar/acidity ratio and remains constant in the following weeks. Among wines, red wine is considered to have a more protective effect due to its excellent content of antioxidant substances released from the peels and seeds of the grape. Research has shown that red wine presented more health-promotion activity than beer or spirits, causing research to focus on phenolic compounds. Red wine has red wine polyphenols, a complex mixture of flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols) and nonflavonoids (resveratrol, cinnamates, and gallic acid). Flavan-3-ols are the most abundant, with polymeric procyanidins (condensed tannins) composing up to fifty percent of the total phenolic constituents.

A compound, resveratrol (trans-3,5,4’-trihydroxytrans-stilbene), is a phytoalexin produced by plants after exposure to biotic or abiotic stress that is abundant in the skin of red grapes, which contributes to a high concentration in red wine and grape juice. The concentration of resveratrol in red wine is higher than in white wine. This is because the peels and skin of the grapes are in contact throughout the fermentation process in red winemaking. Resveratrol has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and attenuate inflammation, and these mechanisms may account for many of its health benefits. In addition, it can alter lipid metabolism and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation and platelet aggregation.

In addition, some studies suggested that red wine has more fantastic antioxidant and favourable lipid metabolism effects than white wine. Terpene concentrations in grapes and wine would obviously depend on various factors like cultivar, region, altitude, and winemaking techniques. Quantifying terpene compounds is difficult to determine as most of the terpene compounds are found in micro concentrations. Wine and its byproducts cake and lees can be distilled to obtain alcohol or alcoholic beverages such as brandy, grappa, and cognac.

Most California raisin growers use hand labor to pick and place them on paper trays between the vine rows to dry. However, labor has become increasingly scarce and expensive in recent years, so many raisin growers have begun using mechanical harvesters to shake the berries from the vines into hoppers from which they are spread onto a paper length known as a ‘continuous tray’. Naturally, the continuous tray method requires fewer laborers than the traditional hand-harvesting method and can reduce production costs.

Cabernet Franc is perhaps best known as the blending partner of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the famous reds of Bordeaux and similar blends produced elsewhere. Not surprisingly, given that Cabernet Sauvignon is its offspring (crossed with Sauvignon Blanc), its red fruit and herbal flavors are complementary to the flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon. Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world’s most respected and widely grown wine grape varieties. Cabernet’s reputation comes from consistency, reliability, depth of flavor, and its ability to develop complex flavors over a long, graceful aging period. Much of this can be attributed to its high tannin levels, often bolstered further by maturation in new oak barrels.

Grenache is a vital grape variety, but it is not often bottled by itself. Instead, it typically appears in blends such as G-S-M (Grenache-Syrah-Mourvedre) for added color, acidity, and complexity. Grenache thrives in hot, dry conditions where it develops considerable sugar and high alcohol. Old-vine Grenache is highly prized for its concentration of flavor. Grenache is often made into distinctive roses and may be used to make sweet and fortified wines. Grenache-based wines tend to oxidize quickly, picking up a salmon or somewhat orange tinge and a rusticity noticeable in the wine’s aroma or bouquet.

Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon have a lot in common regarding style and aromas. Some Merlot is even every bit as powerful as a Cabernet Sauvignon, but Merlot, in general, tends to be a little less intense, less tannic, and less alcoholic-and it has lighter, brighter fruit flavors. Syrah is a well-known grape in southern France, but it is perhaps just as well-known under its alternative name, Shiraz. The grape is likely to be known as Shiraz in Australia, South Africa, and other New World countries. It is the leading red grape of Australia, and it is gaining in popularity in California’s Central Coast region, Washington State, South Africa, and Argentina.

Pinot noir is called ‘archaic’ and could have been present in the first century, with the Pinot name first recorded in the fourteenth century. While the true origin of Pinot Noir has been the subject of much debate, it is generally considered to be native to Burgundy, France. Burgundy is the standard for perfection in Pinot Noir to many wine lovers. Pinot Noir is a unique red grape that can thrive and ripen in cool climates, and for this reason, every cool-climate wine region in the New World has at least experimented with Pinot Noir. Oregon, New Zealand, and the cooler regions of California have had tremendous success.

Orange wines

The tradition of orange wine is thought to have originated in the Republic of Georgia approximately five thousand years ago. In producing orange wines, juice from white grapes spends a significant amount of time macerating with the grape skins to extract tannin and color and achieve some oxidative resistance. Depending upon the winemaker’s preference, contact may last for as short as three days or as long as several weeks or even months. As a result, these wines develop a coppery or orange hue.

Sparkling wines

The bubbles in all fizzy drinks, including sparkling wines, are carbon dioxide, a product of fermentation. In the case of most drinks other than wine (and bottle-conditioned beers), carbon dioxide is injected into the liquid before bottling. While it is true that some wines (for example, the most inexpensive Lambruscos) are given a spritz by this injection method, the sparkle in all quality sparkling wines is the result of retaining the natural carbon dioxide produced by fermentation in the wine. The way this fermentation is carried out impacts the style and quality of the finished wine.

Styles can vary from the lightest, foamy, sweet Lambrusco to the creamy, elegant mousse and biscuity tones of a bone-dry Champagne. There are two basic methods by which this is achieved: fermentation in a sealed tank or fermentation in a bottle. The fermentation method is the critical factor in determining the finished style of sparkling wine. This is because the gas produced is not allowed to escape entirely, the pressure will be built up, and the carbon dioxide will be absorbed into the sparkling wine. The most often seen sparkling wine are Prestige, Vintage, Nonvintage, Blanc de Blancs, Blanc de Noirs, and Rosé.

Further readings:

Creasy, G. L., & Creasy, L. L. (2018). Grapes (Vol. 27). Cabi.

Croitoru, C., & Râpeanu, G. (2019). New Insights on Winemaking of White Grapes. In Fermented Beverages (pp. 103-145). Woodhead Publishing.

Du Plessis, C. S. (1984). Optimum maturity and quality parameters in grapes: a review. South African journal of enology and viticulture5(1), 34-42.

Fadhel, A., Kooli, S., Farhat, A., & Bellghith, A. (2005). Study of the solar drying of grapes by three different processes. Desalination185(1-3), 535-541.

Ferreira, V., & Lopez, R. (2019). The actual and potential aroma of winemaking grapes. Biomolecules9(12), 818.

Fowles, G. W. A. (1992). Acids in grapes and wines: A review. Journal of Wine research3(1), 25-41.

Garrido, J., & Borges, F. (2013). Wine and grape polyphenols—A chemical perspective. Food research international54(2), 1844-1858.

González-Barreiro, C., Rial-Otero, R., Cancho-Grande, B., & Simal-Gándara, J. (2015). Wine aroma compounds in grapes: A critical review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition55(2), 202-218.

Hussain, S. Z., Naseer, B., Qadri, T., Fatima, T., & Bhat, T. A. (2021). Grapes (Vitis vinifera)—Morphology, Taxonomy, Composition and Health Benefits. In Fruits Grown in Highland Regions of the Himalayas (pp. 103-115). Springer, Cham.

Kandylis, P. (2021). Grapes and their derivatives in functional foods. Foods10(3), 672.

Lekli, I., Ray, D., & Das, D. K. (2010). Longevity nutrients resveratrol, wines and grapes. Genes & nutrition5(1), 55-60.

Mansour, G., Ghanem, C., Mercenaro, L., Nassif, N., Hassoun, G., & Del Caro, A. (2022). Effects of altitude on the chemical composition of grapes and wine: a review. OENO One56(1), 227-239.

This, P., Lacombe, T., & Thomas, M. R. (2006). Historical origins and genetic diversity of wine grapes. TRENDS in Genetics22(9), 511-519.

Williamson, G., & Carughi, A. (2010). Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins. Nutrition Research30(8), 511-519.

Yang, J., & Xiao, Y. Y. (2013). Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition53(11), 1202-1225.